Bioremediation has been a natural process since the beginning of time. For our purposes, we can define bioremediation as the process by which organic hazardous materials (such as hydrocarbons) are biologically degraded or "broken down", usually into innocuous materials such as carbon dioxide, water inorganic salts and biomass.
This very simple basic process has few requirements. Assuming nothing has been done to destroy microbial colonies such as excessive heat, certain chemicals or soil sterilization the key ingredients are:
||Microbes indigenous or supplied
||Available oxygen supply
||Energy source heat
||Supplemental nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus, food, and water
By following simple land-farming techniques, we can greatly enhance the bioremediation process.
Both extensive research and actual field usage has proven a variety of contaminant compounds respond well to bioremediation. Petroleum hydrocarbons are at the top of this list, followed by wood preservants (creosote) and chlorinated solvents.
This process benefits end users in the oilfield, petrochemical refineries, wood processors, and industry in general. It provides one of the most cost-effective ways for waste treatment and significant risk reduction.